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The TCP/IP protocol suite is the standard requirement for all applications that need to communicate over the Internet. As TCP/IP applications are unable to specify the QoS parameters needed for most Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) services, they tend to use the unspecified bit rate (UBR) service category when running across ATM networks. The UBR service utilizes any bandwidth that is left unused by the rest of the ATM services. This has led the ATM Forum's Traffic Management Group to define adoi:10.1109/comst.1999.5340707 fatcat:7awcbicaufflrax5kwpshoxgz4