Production of somatic embryos and plantlets in seedless grapevine varieties ( Vitis vinifera L.) by anther culture Vegetative multiplication of five Dalmatian autochthonous grape cultivars in vitro

A Bouquet, G Benchetrit, Y Dal'glot, D Hartl, P Malesand, S Jelaska
Ab s t r a c t : Breeding for seedless table grapes is now cu1Tently done by hybridization of seedless varieties using the technique of in ovulo rescue. The qualities required for the new varieties are mainly improved bud fertility, earlier ripening and increased berry size. Somaclonal variation induced by in vitro tissue culture can be an interesting alternative to hybridization for improving seedless varieties of major imponance, like Sultanina, or seedless va1ieties having rechnological
more » ... cteristics difficult to recover after cross-breeding, like aptitude for canning. With this objective, the embryogenic ability of the anther somatic tissues was measured on 8 seedless varieties: Sulranina, Perlette, Delighr, Beauty Seedless, Canner Seedless, Sultana Moscata (75 Pirovano), 45 Bruni and 116 Bruni. Callus induction, somaric embryo producrion and somatic embryo conversion into plantlers depend considerably on rhe variery used. From this point ofview, the mosr interesring ones are Sultanina, Canner Seedless, 7 5 Pirovano and 116 Bruni. On the whole, 952 planrlers were obrained from 3213 somatic emb1yos. The inOuence of developmental stage of rhe anther on the different paramerers of embryo somaric production was studied on the variery 116 Bruni, and results show rhat some of these parameters are antagonistic processes: Promotion of one generally results in depression of the other. Somaclonal variation among the somatic embryos of 116 Bruni was observed with rhe occun·ence of sub-Iethai plantlets shov.1ng a delayed chlorophyll deficiency. Abstract: Possibilities ofmicropropagation ofDebit, Plavac mali, Plavina, Posip and Vugava cultivars were investigated. Explants for culture were prepared from the sterilized shoot apices. All resred genotypes were successfully established in culture when placed on the medium containing the salts ofMtrRASH1GE and SKooG, 0.5 mg 1· 1 IAA, 0.1 mg 1· 1 BA and 3% sucrose. Vigoraus plantlets were consistently produced by transfening to media with BA (0.02-2.2 mg 1· 1) and 0.1-0.5 mg 1· 1 l.L\.A. The growth habit of the in vilro grown shoots exhibited three main characreristics of grape seedling morphology: Iack oftendrils, spiral phyllotaxy and leaves lacking the lateral sinuses. The goal of rhis work was to test the feasibility of in vi1ro propagarion of grapevine. Funhennore, this merhod may be ofsignif1cance for virus elimination ofinfected plants.