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The ability to grow at moderate acidic conditions (pH 4.0-5.0) is important to Escherichia coli colonization of the host's intestine. Several regulatory systems are known to control acid resistance in E. coli, enabling the bacteria to survive under acidic conditions without growth. Here, we characterize an acid-tolerance response (ATR) system and its regulatory circuit, required for E. coli exponential growth at pH 4.2. A two-component system CpxRA directly senses acidification throughdoi:10.1038/s41467-020-15350-5 pmid:32198415 fatcat:eldu653bfncd5ox3lg46oicanq