Ligand-Targeted Delivery of Photosensitizers for Cancer Treatment

Piotr Gierlich, Ana I. Mata, Claire Donohoe, Rui M. M. Brito, Mathias O. Senge, Lígia C. Gomes-da-Silva
2020 Molecules  
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising cancer treatment which involves a photosensitizer (PS), light at a specific wavelength for PS activation and oxygen, which combine to elicit cell death. While the illumination required to activate a PS imparts a certain amount of selectivity to PDT treatments, poor tumor accumulation and cell internalization are still inherent properties of most intravenously administered PSs. As a result, common consequences of PDT include skin photosensitivity. To
more » ... come the mentioned issues, PSs may be tailored to specifically target overexpressed biomarkers of tumors. This active targeting can be achieved by direct conjugation of the PS to a ligand with enhanced affinity for a target overexpressed on cancer cells and/or other cells of the tumor microenvironment. Alternatively, PSs may be incorporated into ligand-targeted nanocarriers, which may also encompass multi-functionalities, including diagnosis and therapy. In this review, we highlight the major advances in active targeting of PSs, either by means of ligand-derived bioconjugates or by exploiting ligand-targeting nanocarriers.
doi:10.3390/molecules25225317 pmid:33202648 fatcat:obel6pt4hrex3bplb25yg2p5ha