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Search engines rely heavily on term-based approaches that represent queries and documents as bags of words. Text---a document or a query---is represented by a bag of its words that ignores grammar and word order, but retains word frequency counts. When presented with a search query, the engine then ranks documents according to their relevance scores by computing, among other things, the matching degrees between query and document terms. While term-based approaches are intuitive and effective inarXiv:1711.06004v1 fatcat:6vkhvfby3zbzrepgopunm7gie4