Sleep detection for younger adults, healthy older adults, and older adults living with dementia using wrist-worn temperature and actigraphy: Prototype Testing and Case Study Analysis (Preprint)

Jing Wei, Jennifer Boger
2020 JMIR mHealth and uHealth  
Sleep is essential for one's health and quality of life. Wearable technologies that use motion and temperature sensors have made it possible to self-monitor sleep. Although there is a growing body of research on sleep monitoring using wearable devices for healthy young-to-middle-aged adults, few studies have focused on older adults, including those living with dementia. This study aims to investigate the impact of age and dementia on sleep detection through movement and wrist temperature. A
more » ... l of 10 younger adults, 10 healthy older adults, and 8 older adults living with dementia (OAWD) were recruited. Each participant wore a Mi Band 2 (accemetry-based sleep detection) and our custom-built wristband (actigraphy and wrist temperature) 24 hours a day for 2 weeks and was asked to keep a daily sleep journal. Sleep parameters detected by the Mi Band 2 were compared with sleep journals, and visual analysis of actigraphy and temperature data was performed. The absolute differences in sleep onset and offset between the sleep journals and Mi Band 2 were 39 (SD 51) minutes and 31 (SD 52) minutes for younger adults, 49 (SD 58) minutes and 33 (SD 58) minutes for older adults, and 253 (SD 104) minutes and 161 (SD 94) minutes for OAWD. The Mi Band 2 was unable to accurately detect sleep in 3 healthy older adults and all OAWDs. The average sleep and wake temperature difference of OAWD (1.26 °C, SD 0.82 °C) was significantly lower than that of healthy older adults (2.04 °C, SD 0.70 °C) and healthy younger adults (2.48 °C, SD 0.88 °C). Actigraphy data showed that older adults had more movement during sleep compared with younger adults and that this trend appears to increase for those with dementia. The Mi Band 2 did not accurately detect sleep in older adults who had greater levels of nighttime movement. As more nighttime movement appears to be a phenomenon that increases in prevalence with age and even more so with dementia, further research needs to be conducted with a larger sample size and greater diversity of commercially available wearable devices to explore these trends more conclusively. All participants, including older adults and OAWD, had a distinct sleep and wake wrist temperature contrast, which suggests that wrist temperature could be leveraged to create more robust and broadly applicable sleep detection algorithms.
doi:10.2196/26462 pmid:34061038 fatcat:ugyhyblohnbulk4c4zyp3axnuu