Multi-source and multi-stage metal mobilization during the tectonic evolution of the Central Lapland Greenstone Belt, Finland: implications for the formation of orogenic Au deposits

C. G. C. Patten, F. Molnár, I. K. Pitcairn, J. Kolb, S. Mertanen, S. Hector
Precambrian greenstone belts are prospective terrains for orogenic Au deposits worldwide, but the sources of Au, base metals, metalloids, and ligands enriched within the deposits are still debated. Metamorphic devolatilization is a key mechanism for generating Au-rich hydrothermal fluids, but the respective role of the metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks present within these belts in releasing ore-forming elements is still not fully understood. The Central Lapland Greenstone Belt (CLGB),
more » ... and, one of the largest Paleoproterozoic greenstone belts, hosts numerous orogenic Au deposits and is composed of variably metamorphosed volcanic and sedimentary rocks. Characterization of element behavior during prograde metamorphism highlights that (1) metavolcanic rocks release significant Au, As, Sn, Te, and possibly S; (2) metasedimentary rocks release significant S, C, Cu, As, Se, Mo, Sn, Sb, Te, and U, but limited Au; and (3) metakomatiite releases C and possibly Au. Throughout the CLGB metamorphic evolution, two main stages are identified for metal mobilization: (1) prograde metamorphism at ~ 1.92–1.86 Ga, promoting the formation of typical orogenic Au deposits and (2) late orogenic evolution between ~ 1.83 and 1.76 Ga, promoting the formation of both typical and atypical orogenic Au deposits. The complex lithologic diversity, tectonic evolution, and metamorphic history of the CLGB highlight that metal mobilization can occur at different stages of an orogenic cycle and from different sources, stressing the necessity to consider the complete dynamic and long-lasting evolution of orogenic belts when investigating the source of Au, ligands, metals, and metalloids in orogenic Au deposits.
doi:10.5445/ir/1000150923 fatcat:66qbg7iyprahhkglovaj3mbd4y