Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of USM Emotional Quotient Inventory (USMEQ-i) among medical degree program applicants in Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM)
Education in Medicine Journal
Emotional intelligence (EI) is deemed an important aspect of being good medical doctors. Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) Emotional Quotient Inventory (USMEQ-i) is an EI inventory in Malay language developed primarily as medical student selection tool in USM. Although it was already validated by exploratory factor analysis (EFA), EFA is considered insufficient evidence of construct validity, thus confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted. Objectives: To determine measurement model
... and construct validity of USMEQ-i among medical degree program applicants in USM by CFA. Methods: USMEQ-i data file for medical degree program applicants in USM for year 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 academic sessions were obtained from Medical Education Department in USM. A random sample of 512 cases was drawn from the data file. Of the sample, only 453 cases were valid study sample after preliminary data screening and assumption checking. CFA was conducted on the sample using maximum likelihood (ML) estimation with bootstrapping technique due to violation of multivariate normality assumption. USMEQ-i measurement model was proposed as a second-order EI factor with seven first-order factors of EI and a Faking Index (FI) factor, with correlation between second-order EI factor and FI factor. Results: The proposed model could not be fit into the study sample data. EI factors and FI factor had to be analyzed separately due to non-positive definite problem. After modifications to the model, CFA of EI factors were suggestive of twofactor model instead of the proposed seven-factor model. Consciousness, Maturity and Control (CoMaCt). CFA of FI factor maintained one-factor model and also valid in term of construct. Conclusion: The modified USMEQ-i, which consisted of separate EI and FI models, was proven to have valid measurement models and reliable constructs. It is considered to be suitable for use among applicants to medical degree program in USM. However, its use as medical student selection tool may require further research, especially how predictive USMEQ-i scores with real performance of medical students, generalizability of the inventory and its stability over time.