Western herbal remedies for Urinary Tract infections
Archive of Urological Research
Introduction Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs) are one of the most common bacterial infections, with a frequency of 50%-60% in mature females  Urinary tract infections could be uncomplicated or complicated. Uncomplicated UTIs affects individuals with no neurological or structural deformities in urinary tract . Uncomplicated UTIs could be separated into infection of lower UTIs (cystitis) and upper UTIs (Pyelonephritis) . Underlying factor for cystitis are gender, former UTI infection,
... I infection, genetic susceptibility, vaginal infection, sexual activeness, overweight and diabetes , whereas uncomplicated UTIs arises from presence of factors debilitates host immune defenses including renal transplantation, renal failure, urine retention due to neurological disorders, immunosuppression, presence of foreign bodies with urinary tract like indwelling catheters . In the United states, the indwelling catheters results in 70-80% of complicated UTIs  with a total of one million cases per year . Etiology of UTIs includes Gram-negative , gram-positive and fungi. Uropathogenic Escherichia Coli (UPEC) is the most common bacterial of all types of UTIs. In the cases of Uncomplicated UTIs, UPEC is followed in frequency by K. pneumoniae, S. saprophyticus, Enterococcus faecalis, Group B Streptococcus (GBS), Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida spp. , whereas in complicated UTIs, UPEC is followed in frequency by Enterococcus spp., K. pneumoniae, Candida spp., S. aureus, P. mirabilis, P. aeruginosa and GBS . The emergence and exacerbation of the bacterial drug resistance problem, beside other problems of antibiotic therapy as the adverse effects of hepatoxicity, nephrotoxicity , ototoxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity; immunosuppression; eradication of benefi cial gut and mucosal surfaces fl ora and allergic reactions , made most of antibiotics worthless in treatment of many cases of UTIs and directed global attention towards fi nding new therapeutic alternatives. Herbal medicine is the most important alternative therapy for classical antibiotics. Scientifi c research on herbal medicine confi rmed the therapeutic activity of vast majority of medicinal plants known in traditional medicine of different areas worldwide for their activity in treatment microbial infections and different human diseases [10,11]. Abstract Fourteen medicinal plants native to North America and Europe traditionally used for treatment urinary tract infections (UTIs) were reviewed for their traditional uses, pharmacological activities, Active compounds responsible for its therapeutic potential, mechanism of action of its active compounds and In Vitro and In Vivo studies of its activity in treatment of UTIs. Those medicinal plants were Junipers (Juniperus spp.), Uva ursi (Arctostaphylos uva-ursi), Rosemary (Rosmarinus offi cinalis), Goldenrod (Solidago canadensis, S. virgaurea and S. gigantea), Common nettle (Urtica dioica), Dandelion (Taraxacum offi cinale), Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon), Corn silk (Stigma maydis), Couch grass (Agropyrum repens). Marshmallow root (Althaea offi cinalis), Hosretail (Equisetum arvense), Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis). Buchu (Agathosma betulina and A. crenulata) and Oregon grape (Mahonia aquifolium). All of those medicinal plants found to have various pharmaceutical activities making it potent herbal remedies for UTIs in addition to various human diseases.