Characteristics and predictors of early hospital deaths in newly diagnosed APL: a 13-year population-wide study
Despite therapeutic advances, early death (ED) remains a major factor curtailing survival of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Studies examining factors that cause early death (ED; within 30 days of admission) and the correlation of survival with the timing of administration of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and hemostatic parameters are scarce. We performed a cohort analysis of nonselect patients with newly diagnosed APL who presented to the health care system in Hong Kong, where oral
... trioxide was used. From 1 January 2007 to 30 April 2020, 358 patients (median age, 47 [1-97] years) with newly diagnosed APL were identified. ED occurred in 56 patients (16%): 11 (3%) died in the first 2 days after admission (intracranial hemorrhage [ICH], n = 6; APL-differentiation syndrome [APL-DS], n = 4; infection, n = 1); 22 (6%) died within 3 to 7 days (ICH, n = 12; APL-DS, n = 8; infections, n = 2), and 23 (6%) died within 8 to 30 days (ICH, n = 7; APL-DS, n = 11; infection, n = 5). Factors significantly associated with ED by multivariate analysis included male sex (P = .01); presenting leukocyte count ≥10 × 109/L (P = .03); fibrinogen <1.5 g/L (P = .02); and ATRA administration >24 hours after hospital admission (P < .001). After a median follow-up of 47 (0-166) months, the 5- and 10-year overall survival (OS) was 68.6% and 61.2%, respectively. Excluding EDs, the 5- and 10-year post–30-day OS improved to 81.3% and 72.5%. Early administration of ATRA (<24 hours) and vigorous correction of hemostatic abnormalities, including hypofibrinogenemia, are key to reducing ED.