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Biosensors are a broad array of devices that detect the type and amount of a biological species or biomolecule. Several different types of biosensors have been developed that rely on changes to mechanical, chemical or electrical properties of the transduction or sensing element to induce a measurable signal. Often, a biosensor will integrate several functions or unit operations such as sample extraction, manipulation and detection on a single platform. This review begins with an overview of thedoi:10.1098/rsta.2011.0498 pmid:22509059 fatcat:3se5wvblknhz5grryd44yt37qy