Associated species and threats upon Lycium schweinfurthii var. schweinfurthii in the Deltaic Mediterranean coast, Egypt
The present study evaluates the associated species in twelve sites including forty stands that were sampled to represent the variation among Lycium schweinfurthii var. schweinfurthii Dammer population in Egypt. The stands represent the distribution of this population in five habitats in the study area (coastal sand dunes, flat sand sheets, roadsides, island sand dunes and canal banks). Seventy associated species belong to 27 families were recorded, they comprise 38 perennials (54.2%) and 32
... (54.2%) and 32 annuals (47.1%). Therophytes had the highest value (47%), followed by geophyte-helophytes (17%). Gramineae had the highest contribution (11 species = 15.7 %) followed by Compositae (9 species = 12.8 %). Thirteen vegetation groups were recognized in the study area after the application of TWINSPAN. Echinops spinosissimus and Rumex pictus (P=100 %) were the main associated in the thirteen groups. The significant edaphic variables which affected the distribution of this plant were Ca ++ , Mg ++ , HCO3 -, SO4 --, pH and organic matter. The threats upon its distribution in the study area were cutting (75 %), removing (62.5 %), fragmentation (37.5 %), grazing (25 %) and firing (20 %).