Empathy, warmth, and genuineness in psychotherapy: A review of reviews

C. H. Patterson
1984 Psychotherapy  
Several reviews of therapist variables in relation to therapy outcome appear to be biased and to underestimate the effects of empathy, warmth (or respect) and genuineness. These reviews are analyzed and evaluated, and reviewer biases are noted. In spite of the generally negative, or at best equivocal conclusions of these reviews, the evidence is actually supportive for the necessity, if not the sufficiency, of these therapist conditions. Considering the statistical factors militating against
more » ... litating against the obtaining of significant positive results, it is concluded that the evidence for the effectiveness of the therapist variables is far greater than is recognized by many reviewers. Research on empathy, warmth and genuineness, known as the core conditions of the counseling and psychotherapy relationship, is voluminous. It constitutes a body of research which is among the largest for any topic of similar size in the field of psychology. In the 1967 review of Truax & Carkhuff (1967) , 439 references were listed. In the 1971 review of Truax & Mitchell (1971) there were 92 references. Most recent reviews contain many additional references. analyses of, and conclusions from their analyses of, the individual research studies. Consider the following points:
doi:10.1037/h0085985 fatcat:ltzwzhdb6bdbrn2kxuvuqccosq