Fault diagnosis accuracy improvement using wayside rectangular microphone array for health monitoring of railway-vehicle wheel bearing
Wayside acoustic detection is a promising technology for railway-vehicle bearing health monitoring due to its merits of non-conduct measurement, low cost, and early warning capacity. However, the diagnostic accuracy will be reduced by the problems of strong background noise and Doppler distortion. Considering the super spatial directivity ability of the microphone array, in this paper, a uniform rectangular array (URA) and an optimal spatial filter (OSF) based on the principle of minimum
... e distortion-less response (MVDR) are designed to improve the diagnostic accuracy. Compared with the traditional single microphone and linear array, spatial directivity can be improved significantly so that the better anti-noise performance and higher diagnostic accuracy can be achieved. First, a URA consisting of 15 microphone elements arranged into five columns and three rows is designed to capture the wayside acoustic signal. Second, the direction angle of the target moving sound source with high accuracy is calculated at different times. Third, an OSF based on the principle of the MVDR is designed to extract the target sound source signal. Fourth, Doppler effect embedded in the filtered signal is eliminated using the MVDR spectrum estimation and resampling method. Finally, the diagnosis decision is made through an envelope spectrum analysis. The comparative simulation and experimental case studies are carried out to verify the effectiveness and improvement of the proposed method. INDEX TERMS Acoustic defective bearing detection, Doppler effect, fault diagnosis, microphone array, MVDR.