Association of Pre-Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (Type 1 & Type 2), Gestational Diabetes, and Pre-Eclampsia with Preterm Birth Among Omani Women
Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics
To understand what results in preterm birth, the purpose of this quantitative cross-sectional study was to determine if and to what extent rates of pre-gestational diabetes mellitus, gestational diabetes mellitus, and preeclampsia differ between Omani women who deliver preterm infants and Omani women who deliver term infants. Shonkoff's bio-developmental framework provided the theoretical foundation for the study. Methodology: A quantitative method. Specifically, this is a retrospective
... ctional study using secondary data Secondary. Data were gathered from a simple random sample of 400 women who delivered preterm or term infants between 2015 and 2017 at Ibri hospital in Oman. Controls group included 200 women with full-term and 200 cases women with pre-term (case to control ratio was 1:1). After data extraction and cleaning, descriptive analyses and Chi-square tests of independence were conducted. Results: A total of 400 randomly selected participants (mean age of the participants was 29.26 (SD±5.75) years) were included in the study (200 participants gave birth to preterm infants and 200 participants gave birth to full term infants). The demographics of the women, maternal clinical characteristics, neonatal clinical characteristics, maternal complications in previous pregnancy, and maternal complications in current pregnancy, were summarized. According to the results of chi-square tests of independence, there was no association between delivery term and complications in current pregnancy, in terms of pre-gestational diabetes mellitus, GDM, and pre-eclampsia. Nonetheless, numerous statistically significant association were found between risk of preterm birth and demographic as well as clinical factors. Conclusion: According to the results, there was no statistically significant association between delivery term and complications in current pregnancy, in terms of pre-gestational diabetes mellitus and pre-eclampsia. However, most of the indicators related to determine the connection between education, number of infants born prematurely, maternal family history of GDM, maternal family history of gestational hypertension, maternal family history of obesity, infants' birth weight, Apgar score at 1 minute and Apgar score at 5 minutes, and fetal demise the second research question were statistically significant with preterm birth. Finally, the researcher recommends addressing the current study's limitation of Omani specific results in broader studies covering a greater population and diverse population demographics. Also the researcher recommends the results of this study be applied to nursing practice and education by training nurses and nursing students to identify factors in patient family histories which might suggest high risk pregnancies.