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<a target="_blank" rel="noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/container/a2yvk5xhdnhpxjnk6yd33uudqq" style="color: black;">Energies</a>
Energy storage system (ESS) technology is still the logjam for the electric vehicle (EV) industry. Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries have attracted considerable attention in the EV industry owing to their high energy density, lifespan, nominal voltage, power density, and cost. In EVs, a smart battery management system (BMS) is one of the essential components; it not only measures the states of battery accurately, but also ensures safe operation and prolongs the battery life. The accurate<span class="external-identifiers"> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener noreferrer" href="https://doi.org/10.3390/en12030446">doi:10.3390/en12030446</a> <a target="_blank" rel="external noopener" href="https://fatcat.wiki/release/lwugu46npzclfhhuilyobho3sm">fatcat:lwugu46npzclfhhuilyobho3sm</a> </span>
more »... of the state of charge (SOC) of a Li-ion battery is a very challenging task because the Li-ion battery is a highly time variant, non-linear, and complex electrochemical system. This paper explains the workings of a Li-ion battery, provides the main features of a smart BMS, and comprehensively reviews its SOC estimation methods. These SOC estimation methods have been classified into four main categories depending on their nature. A critical explanation, including their merits, limitations, and their estimation errors from other studies, is provided. Some recommendations depending on the development of technology are suggested to improve the online estimation.
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