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Male infertility is a prevalent condition, concerning 5-10% of men. So far, only some recurrent genetic factors have been described as confident contributors to spermatogenic failure. Here, we report the first re-sequencing study of the Y-chromosomal Azoospermia Factor c (AZFc) region combined with gene dosage and Y-haplogroup determination. In analysing 2,324 Estonian men, we uncovered a novel structural variant as a high-penetrant risk factor to male infertility. The Y lineage R1a1-M458,doi:10.1101/2020.12.08.20245928 fatcat:rtfxpiakwffj5ldui6sqjl4lmm