Lichens of Santa Cruz
354 BOTANICAL GAZETTE [MAY in the bulletins before us, and containing descriptions of nearly I50 new species. There are also notes on the Gramineae by E. HACKEL, including descriptions of 2 new species; an account of the Scitamineae by HENRY N. RIDLEY, 8 new species being characterized; and io new species of Acanthaceae by C. B. CLARKE.-J. M. C. Aster.-In I9024 E. S. BURGESS published a "History of Pre-Clusian Botany in its relation to Aster;" and now a second paper on Aster has appeared,5
... has appeared,5 which deals with the "Biotian Asters." Under the head of variation, specific limits in the genus are discussed; also normal characters and the comparative variability of organs. There is no group of flowering plants in which such a discussion would seem more difficult. A systematic treatment of the species is also begun, 84 species being presented with great fullness, 58 of which are published for the first time; also io subspecies and about 250 subordinate forms are characterized.-J. M. C. Festuca.-C. V. PIPER6 has published a monograph of the North American species of Festuca, recognizing 34 species, and characterizing 3 of them as new. A third subgenus is added to Vulpia and Eufestuca, to include F. confines Vasey, and is called Hesperochloa. There are also notes on several Mexican species including descriptions of 2 new species. A new word is added to the terminology of grasses. The word "glume" is restricted to the "empty glumes;" while the "lower palet" or "outer palet" or "flowering glume" of authors is the lemma, a Greek word meaning husk or scale.-J. M. C.