The local extragalactic velocity field, the local mean mass density, and biased galaxy formation
The biased galaxy formation picture accounts for the low apparent mass density derived from clustering dynamics by the assumption that the mass per galaxy is unusually low in the regions of high density where clustering has been studied. It would follow that the mass per galaxy is unusually high where the mass density is low, and, by continuity, that the mass per galaxy is close to the global mean in regions where the ambient mass density, p1, is close to the global mean, Pb· That is, we would
... That is, we would expect that the best chance for an unbiased estimate of the mean mass per galaxy, and hence of Pb• would be from the dynamics of regions with p1 ~ Pb· The local density at redshifts 200 ~ cz ~ 400 km s -l must be close to Pb because, as Sandage has emphasized, the local Hubble flow is so little perturbed. In this paper we derive a relationship between the local mass density and the perturbation of the local Hubble flow. The local mass density is estimated by the method used in the Virgocentric flow. We use the infrared Tully-Fisher distances of Aaronson et al. to find limits on the gravitational perturbation to the local Hubble flow, and we use bright galaxy counts, N, to estimate the local galaxy concentration. The statistics on the latter are weak because N is small. We can conclude, however, that if mass were proportional to N, with no fluctuations, and the local mass per galaxy were a fair sample, then the density parameter (Q =Ph/Einstein-de Sitter density) would be Q ~ 0.1, consistent with the other dynamical estimates and inconsistent with the above naive interpretation of biasing.