Geographical Notes [stub]

1885 Science  
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more » ... out Early Journal Content at http://about.jstor.org/participate--jstor/individuals/early-journal--content. JSTOR is a digital library of academic journals, books, and primary source objects. JSTOR helps people discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content through a powerful research and teaching platform, and preserves this content for future generations. JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not--for--profit organization that also includes Ithaka S+R and Portico. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. 554 SCIENYCE. SCIENYCE. SCIENYCE. or less depression of trade."' Seize an Englishman by his pocket, and you can convince his mind. The flow of the rural population to the cities is pointed out as one of the causes of the great distress in the centres of population, because of the vastly greater competition for employment. Together with this movement he instances the fact that "from 1873 to 1884 the quantity of arable land in the country has decreased by considerably more than a million acres." These seem to be local causes, and have little effect on other nations; for they are probably the evidences of a re-adjustment of industries to new conditions, such, for example, as the great produce of American wheat districts. The ownership of land by great millionnaires, he argues, also works injury. In 1863-72 the fortunes above a quarter of a million were 162, but in 1873-82 they had increased to 208,an increase of more than 30 per cent. But we do not regard these causes of general importance. The book, in fact, only in its description of the evil effects consequent on speculation, and the mania for foreign loans, gets close at the real cause. But when he gets to his remedies, he does not hit very near the mark. As foreign loans, he thinks, are made chiefly for the glory of monarchs, and to aid in wars for the personal aggrandizement of ruling families, he would have England stand ready to aid the tax-payers in these borrowing countries whenever they revolt against the heavy taxation caused by the loans which they have had no share in spending. Speculative transactions he would discourage by high stampduties; and large fortunes should be prevented by a graduated income-tax. If our author were to extract the ever-springing sanguineness of human nature from the business-man, he would best prevent over-trading and the recurrence of periodic panics, but in scarcely any other way. NIMROD IN THE NORTH. IN this book Lieutenant Schwatka has given a most entertaining story of hunting and fishing in the north polar regions. Seven chapters of the book have been devoted to stories of adventure with animals whose homes are within the arctic circle. Many of the stories told in the volume are similar to some found in the writings of Gerard de Veer, of the Barentz expedition; in the writings of Parry, Beechey, Hearne, Rink, Richardson, Rae, Kane, McClintock, and Hall; so that they are not entirely new; but Lieutenant Schwatka has added to them many interesting observations of Nimnrod in the north. By Lieut. FREDERICK SCHWATKA. New York, Cassell, 1885. 8?.
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