Management of Pediatric Tumor Lysis Syndrome
Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation
Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is a serious complication of malignancies and can result in renal failure or death. Review: In tumors with a high proliferative rate with a relatively large mass and a high sensitivity to cytotoxic agents, the initiation of therapy often results in the rapid release of intracellular anions, cations and the metabolic products of proteins and nucleic acids into the bloodstream. The increased concentrations of uric acid, phosphates, potassium and urea can overwhelm the
... dy's homeostatic mechanisms to process and excrete these materials and result in the clinical spectrum associated with TLS. Typical clinical sequelae include gastrointestinal disturbances, neuromuscular effects, cardiovascular complications, acute renal failure and death. Tumor lysis syndrome can also compromise the efficacy or administration of curative therapies. Available evidence suggests that the incidence of clinical TLS is approximately 3-7% for acute leukemias and 4-11% for lymphomas. Pediatric cancers are the leading cause of death by disease in children. The most common pediatric cancers include the leukemias, lymphomas, central nervous system tumors and neuroblastoma. Thus, TLS is a major concern to practitioners caring for pediatric oncology patients. Given the complexity of TLS prevention and treatment, a multidisciplinary approach involving the collaboration of medical oncologists/ hematologists and nephrologists has the greatest potential of ensuring optimal patient outcomes. Rehydration is fundamental in the management of TLS in addition to the current standard therapy for hyperuricemia which include rasburicase and allopurinol. Conclusion: The early recognition and treatment of metabolic abnormalities often prevents the severe and life-threatening complications associated with tumor lysis syndrome.