An Academy of Spatial Agents - Generating spatial configurations with deep reinforcement learning
Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Education and Research in Computer Aided Architectural Design in Europe (eCAADe)
Agent-based models rely on decentralized decision making instantiated in the interactions between agents and the environment. In the context of generative design, agent-based models can enable decentralized geometric modelling, provide partial information about the generative process, and enable fine-grained interaction. However, the existing agent-based models originate from non-architectural problems and it is not straight-forward to adapt them for spatial design. To address this, we
... a method to create custom spatial agents that can satisfy architectural requirements and support fine-grained interaction using multi-agent deep reinforcement learning (MADRL). We focus on a proof of concept where agents control spatial partitions and interact in an environment (represented as a grid) to satisfy custom goals (shape, area, adjacency, etc.). This approach uses double deep Q-network (DDQN) combined with a dynamic convolutional neural-network (DCNN). We report an experiment where trained agents generalize their knowledge to different settings, consistently explore good spatial configurations, and quickly recover from perturbations in the action selection.