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Pleural empyema (PE) may evolve into necrosis, fistula in the thorax, and sepsis; thus, it is also associated with high mortality.We investigated and analyzed the risk of aortic aneurysm (AA) in a cohort study of patients with PE.A total of 34,250 patients diagnosed with PE were identified as the PE cohort, and 137,000 patients without PE were selected randomly as the control group and matched by sex, age, and index year of PE diagnosis. Patients ages 20 years and younger with a history of AAdoi:10.1097/md.0000000000002142 pmid:26632741 pmcid:PMC5059010 fatcat:faw6by5j7vb5hbcx5frmj3fesm