Deep Metric Learning with Density Adaptivity [article]

Yehao Li and Ting Yao and Yingwei Pan and Hongyang Chao and Tao Mei
2019 arXiv   pre-print
The problem of distance metric learning is mostly considered from the perspective of learning an embedding space, where the distances between pairs of examples are in correspondence with a similarity metric. With the rise and success of Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN), deep metric learning (DML) involves training a network to learn a nonlinear transformation to the embedding space. Existing DML approaches often express the supervision through maximizing inter-class distance and minimizing
more » ... tra-class variation. However, the results can suffer from overfitting problem, especially when the training examples of each class are embedded together tightly and the density of each class is very high. In this paper, we integrate density, i.e., the measure of data concentration in the representation, into the optimization of DML frameworks to adaptively balance inter-class similarity and intra-class variation by training the architecture in an end-to-end manner. Technically, the knowledge of density is employed as a regularizer, which is pluggable to any DML architecture with different objective functions such as contrastive loss, N-pair loss and triplet loss. Extensive experiments on three public datasets consistently demonstrate clear improvements by amending three types of embedding with the density adaptivity. More remarkably, our proposal increases Recall@1 from 67.95% to 77.62%, from 52.01% to 55.64% and from 68.20% to 70.56% on Cars196, CUB-200-2011 and Stanford Online Products dataset, respectively.
arXiv:1909.03909v1 fatcat:b4dj5qns3jendd2n2n2cx5nquq