Molecular Epidemiology, Virulence Factors, Antibiotic Resistance and Risk Factors for Nasal Carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in A Teenage Student Population: High Prevalence of Oxacillin Susceptible MRSA Isolates

Mahsa Ranjbar Omid, Houshang Jamali, Farshid Kafilzadeh, Amir Borjian, Mohsen Arzanlou
2021 Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology  
Asymptomatic carriage of Staphylococcus aureus can lead to endogenous infections and cross-transmission to other individuals. Objectives: The prevalence, molecular epidemiology, antibiotic resistance, and risk factors for nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) were studied in school children in Ardabil, Iran. Methods: Totally, 510 nasal samples were collected during 2017. Isolates were identified and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, identification
more » ... of oxacillin resistance, and molecular typing. Results: Totally, 13.5% of volunteers were positive for methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) and 17.5% colonized with mecA positive S. aureus strains, including 6.07% oxacillin-resistant MRSA (OR-MRSA) and 11.56% oxacillin-susceptible MRSA (OS-MRSA). Excluding β-lactam antibiotics, high resistance rate was observed for erythromycin (71%), tetracycline (25.8%), clindamycin (35%) in our isolates. Surprisingly, 11% of the isolates [OR-MRSA (25.8%), OS-MRSA (10.1%), and MSSA (5.7%) isolates] were resistant to mupirocin. Moreover, 18 (58%), 29 (49%), and 29 (42%) of OR-MRSA, OS-MRSA, and MSSA isolates were multidrug-resistant (MDR), respectively. Overall, 97.48% of isolates carried ≥ 3 toxin encoding genes. The pvl gene was found in 46 (29%) isolates. In comparison, 25.50% of MRSA (9.60% OR-MRSA and 34% OS-MRSA) and 33% of MSSA isolates carried pvl gene. SCCmec type IV had the highest rate among OR-MRSA (87%) and OS-MRSA (74.5%) isolates, which indicates CA-MRSA phenotype. Eleven and 21 spa types were identified in OR-MRSA, and OS-MRSA isolates, respectively. The most common spa types were t11332 (14.3%) and t012 (11.4%) in OS-MRSA isolates. ERIC-PCR revealed high genetic diversity among isolates. The number of students in classroom and incomplete antibiotic course were associated with OS-MRSA nasal carriage. Conclusions: This study showed a high proportion of MDR CA-MRSA nasal carriage among Iranian healthy school children community.
doi:10.5812/jjm.118240 fatcat:aqw5iwbybbgbvkt7vi2oms6fry