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Physics Letters B
We estimate the cosmological abundance of a modulus field that has dilatonic couplings to gauge fields, paying particular attention to thermal corrections on the modulus potential. We find that a certain amount of the modulus coherent oscillations is necessarily induced by a linear thermal effect. We argue that such an estimate provides the smallest possible modulus abundance for a given thermal history of the Universe. As an example we apply our results to a saxion, a bosonic supersymmetricdoi:10.1016/j.physletb.2008.11.046 fatcat:haj2xdy3unhrfkdax7cwzcnofy