Immune and clinical features of CD96 expression in glioma by large-scale analysis
Immune checkpoints target regulatory pathways in T cells which enhance antitumor immune responses and elicit durable clinical responses . As a novel immune checkpoint, CD96 is an attractive key target for cancer immunotherapy. However, there is no integrative investigation of CD96 in glioma. Our study explored the relationship between CD96 expression and clinical prognosis in glioma. Methods: A total of 1,024 RNA and clinical data were enrolled in this study, including 325 samples from the
... se Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA) database and 699 samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset. R language was used to perform statistical analysis and draw figures. Results: CD96 had a consistently positive relationship with glioblastoma and highly enriched in IDHwildtype and mesenchymal subtype glioma. GO enrichment and GSVA analyses suggested that CD96 was more involved in immune functions, especially related to T cell-mediated immune response in glioma. Subsequent immune infiltration analysis manifes ted that CD96 was positively correlated with infiltrating levels of CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells, macrophages , neutrophils, and DCs in GBM and LGG. Additionally, CD96 was tightly associated with other immune checkpoints including PD-1 , CTLA-4 , TIGIT , and TIM-3 . Univariate and multivariate Cox analysis demonstrated that CD96 acts as an independent indicator of poor prognosis in glioma. Conclusion: CD96 expression was increased in malignant phenotype and negatively associated with overall survival (OS) in glioma. CD96 also showed a positive correlation with other immune checkpoints, immune response, and inflammatory activity. Our findings indicate that CD96 is a promising clinical target for further immunotherapeutic in glioma patients. Background As the most prevalent and devastating primary intracranial tumor, glioma, especially glioblastoma multiforme (GBM, WHO grade IV) represents heterogeneity and extensive invasion, characterized by high recurrence and fatality rate    . Therefore, multiple attempts have been made to prolong life expectancies of glioma patients comprising developing effective therapy, appropriate biomarkers, and molecular targeted drugs. Numerous conventional treatment methods of central nervous system The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Publisher's Note Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.