Investigating the depth electrode–brain interface in deep brain stimulation using finite element models with graded complexity in structure and solution
Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an increasingly used surgical therapy for a range of neurological disorders involving the long-term electrical stimulation of various regions of the human brain in a disorder-specific manner. Despite being used for the last 20 years, the underlying mechanisms are still not known, and disputed. In particular, when the electrodes are implanted into the human brain, an interface is created with changing biophysical properties which may impact on stimulation. We
... ously defined the electrode-brain interface (EBI) as consisting of three structural elements: the quadripolar DBS electrode, the peri-electrode space and the surrounding brain tissue. In order to understand more about the nature of the EBI, we used structural computational models of this interface, and estimated the effects of stimulation using coupled axon models. These finite element models differ in complexity, each highlighting a different feature of the EBI's effect on the DBS induced electric field. We show that the quasi-static models are sufficient to demonstrate the difference between the acute and chronic clinical stages postimplantation. However, the frequency-dependent models are necessary as the waveform shaping has a major influence on the activation of neuronal fibres. We also investigate anatomical effects on the electric field, by taking specific account of the ventricular system in the human brain. Taken together, these models allow us to visualise the static, dynamic and target specific properties of the DBS induced field in the surrounding brain regions.