Smoking and its Correlation with Inflammatory Markers and Cardiovascular Risks in Pre-Diabetic and Diabetic Patients
Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences
A B S T R A C T BACKGROUND Cigarette consumption increases both the risk of diabetes and diabetic vascular complications. It is associated with dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and inflammation. However, the exact mechanisms are still to be elucidated. In this study, we aimed to compare the levels of inflammatory markers and assess the cardiovascular risks in terms of CRR, AI, AC and AIP among the patients with prediabetes and diabetes. METHODS This study included 100 control subjects, 145
... iabetic and 126 diabetic patients. The patients were further categorised into non-smoker (44 pre-diabetes and 40 diabetes) and smoker (101 pre-diabetes and 86 diabetes) groups. Inflammatory biomarkers like fibrinogen, CRP, IL-6, adiponectin and uric acid were assayed with standard kit methods. RESULTS We observed high levels of fibrinogen, CRP, IL-6 and uric acid, and low levels of adiponectin in pre-diabetic and diabetic smoker group compared to their nonsmoker counterparts but the level of statistical significance was achieved in case of adiponectin only. Pre-diabetic smokers also demonstrated significantly high fibrinogen compared to pre-diabetic non-smokers. We also found high cardiovascular risk in pre-diabetic and diabetic individuals irrespective of smoking status. Further we documented significant association of inflammatory markers with cardiac risk indices especially in case of diabetic patients and the association was more profound in the patients who smoked. CONCLUSIONS Thus, from this study, it is evident that both pre-diabetic and diabetic individuals are highly susceptible to CVD risks induced by smoking. Diabetic individuals are further at a great risk compared to pre-diabetic individuals. So, quitting smoking can reverse the unwanted health outcomes of diabetes.