Siiyama (serine 53 (TCC) to phenylalanine 53 (TTC)). A new alpha 1-antitrypsin-deficient variant with mutation on a predicted conserved residue of the serpin backbone
Journal of Biological Chemistry
alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1AT), a plasma serine protease inhibitor, increases the risk of precocious pulmonary emphysema in individuals when deficient. Although more than 25 years have passed since a deficiency in the serum level of alpha 1AT was reported, it is only recently that the consequence of the amino acid replacement which leads to the deficient state has been discussed in terms of the crystallographic structure of alpha 1AT and the amino acid residues conserved in the superfamily to
... hich it belongs. Our case involved a 38-year-old Japanese male with alpha 1AT deficiency which was analyzed and identified as a new deficient variant. The serum alpha 1AT of the proband migrated to the S position of the reference serum which is more cathodal than M1, the predominant normal variant, when isoelectric focusing (pH 4.2-4.9) is performed by a combination of Western blotting and crossed immunoelectrophoresis. The new deficient variant is designated as Siiyama after his birthplace. Although liver biopsy specimen showed no apparent pathological findings, PAS-positive with diastase-resistant inclusion bodies and immunoreactive aggregates were detected in several hepatocytes. In addition, similar alpha 1AT mRNA transcript levels were observed in peripheral blood leukocytes from the proband and healthy subjects by Northern analysis. All the coding exons (exon Ic, II, III, IV, and V) of the alpha 1AT gene of the proband and his family were amplified by polymerase chain reaction and followed by direct sequencing. A single missense mutation, Ser53 (TCC) to Phe53 (TTC was identified in exon II of the proband's alpha 1AT gene. All his family examined were heterozygous at this base. Ser53 is one of the most conserved residues as predicted by Huber and Carrell (Huber, R., and Carrell, R. W. (1989) Biochemistry 28, 8951-8966) and is thought to contribute to the organization of the internal core element of the alpha 1AT molecule. The mutational matrix number of Ser to Phe substitution is -3, indicating that this change is evolutionally rare. In this regard, a possible explanation for the deficient state in alpha 1AT Siiyama is that the change from an uncharged polar to a nonpolar amino acid imposed on the conserved serpin backbone exerts severe effects on the integrity of the molecule, and hence alters the intracellular processing of alpha 1AT.