Preparation and Characterization of Activated Carbons from Bitter Kola (Garcinia kola) Nut Shells by Chemical Activation Method Using H3PO4; KOH and ZnCl2

Kuete Tiotsop Idris-Hermann, Tchuifon Tchuifon Donald Raoul, Doungmo Giscard, Anagho Solomon Gabche
2018 Chemical Science International Journal  
Aims: Investigate the changes occurring in the composition of Garcinia kola nut shell after an activation process, especially the characteristics of the chemically activated carbons (ACs) obtained. Idris-Hermann et al.; CSIJ, 23(4): 1-15, 2018; Article no.CSIJ.43411 2 Study Design: Determine of the physicochemical properties of the prepared ACs using optimized experimental data. Place and Duration Methodology: Garcinia kola nut shell (bitter kola nut shell) were used to prepare ACs by chemical
more » ... ctivation using H 3 PO 4 , KOH and ZnCl 2 using the carbonization temperatures 400, 450 and 500°C and the different impregnation ratios 1/1 and 2/1. The effects of the composition of the components on the iodine number and iodine methylene blue number of the ACs were investigated. The best ACs were selected after optimization of the experimental data obtained in the laboratory. Results: Increase in carbonization temperature from 400°C to 500°C led to a decrease in the iodine number and an increase of in burn-off. For the production of ACs, the optimum temperature was found to be 400°C for 1 hour heating, with impregnation ratio of 1/1 by KOH, ZnCl 2 ACs and 2/1 for the H 3 PO 4 AC. Thermo-gravimetric analysis of the raw material was carried out to confirm the thermal stability of the ACs obtained at the optimum temperature of 400°C. The functional surfaces of the ACs and raw materials were studied by Bohem titration, pH, pzc, and FT-IR techniques. SEM analysis illustrates an irregular and heterogeneous surface morphology with a developed and fragmented porous structure of various sizes. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis showed that the raw material and ACs prepared are essentially amorphous. Conclusion: Chemical activation is one of the appropriate methods that can be used to obtain new ACs. The maximum iodine number of the ACs was obtained at carbonization temperature of 400°C for a period of 1 hr, with impregnation ratios 2/1 and 1/1. Original Research Article
doi:10.9734/csji/2018/43411 fatcat:snl33qgfbfh6bpgsbruk55z5ni