Geoecological problems of mining technogenesis in the Urals
Izvestiâ Uralʹskogo Gosudarstvennogo Gornogo Universiteta
The authors show representations of "geoecology" as a part of geological science, mining industrial technogenesis of active and passive stages. The authors consider types of the technogenic and natural-technogenic geological processes and phenomena associated with the development of solid minerals deposits of the Urals by mining methods: technogenic landscapes and their degradation; subaerial, subaquatic and subterral anthropogenic lithogenesis; hydrogenic processes -drainage of mining and
... of mining and quarry fields, full or partial self-sinking of mine workings, technogenic aeration zones, pouring of mine waters on the surface, flooding and bogging of territories, activation of geochemical and hydrochemical processes, pollution of surface and groundwater; geodynamic processes -landslides, avalanches, landslides in mine workings, activation of technogenic surface gravity-erosion processes; subterranean processes -mountain beats, shooting, destruction of excavations, zones of collapse, technogenic earthquakes, blowouts of groundwaters and quicksands, activation of karst and suffosion processes, underground explosions and fires. The article contains characteristics of the formation processes of technogenic hydro-mineral raw materials -drainage waters of coal and copper-pyrite deposits of the Urals with industrial contents of chalcophilic and lithophilic elements, including rare-earth elements. Authors show that the geoecological problems of mining industrial technogenesis are due to the manifestation of dangerous geological processes specific for the active and passive stages of technogenic impact on the environment. Their identification, study, assessment by means of mapping and monitoring observations, and the development forecast will allow developing environmental measures and minimizing the damage caused.