Machine Learning in Predicting Tooth Loss: A Systematic Review and Risk of Bias Assessment
Journal of Personalized Medicine
Predicting tooth loss is a persistent clinical challenge in the 21st century. While an emerging field in dentistry, computational solutions that employ machine learning are promising for enhancing clinical outcomes, including the chairside prognostication of tooth loss. We aimed to evaluate the risk of bias in prognostic prediction models of tooth loss that use machine learning. To do this, literature was searched in two electronic databases (MEDLINE via PubMed; Google Scholar) for studies that
... reported the accuracy or area under the curve (AUC) of prediction models. AUC measures the entire two-dimensional area underneath the entire receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. AUC provides an aggregate measure of performance across all possible classification thresholds. Although both development and validation were included in this review, studies that did not assess the accuracy or validation of boosting models (AdaBoosting, Gradient-boosting decision tree, XGBoost, LightGBM, CatBoost) were excluded. Five studies met criteria for inclusion and revealed high accuracy; however, models displayed a high risk of bias. Importantly, patient-level assessments combined with socioeconomic predictors performed better than clinical predictors alone. While there are current limitations, machine-learning-assisted models for tooth loss may enhance prognostication accuracy in combination with clinical and patient metadata in the future.