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The assessment of management effectiveness during the whole life-cycle process of protected areas (PAs) has become increasingly important, due to the lack of holistic background assessment work on management processes leading to a deeper knowledge of sustainable development (SD) principles. This paper aims to serve as a practical guide through a gradation model of integrated protected area management (IPAM) by carrying out an exhaustive trans-dimensional assessment of management effectiveness,doi:10.3846/jeelm.2021.14142 fatcat:f3iytzo64jaddjx6wf5uop27jm