Pathophysiology of Hip Disorders in Patients with Mucopolysaccharidosis IVA

Zhigang Wang, Yunlan Xu, Enze Jiang, Jianmin Wang, Shunji Tomatsu, Kaiying Shen
2020 Diagnostics  
Patients with mucopolysaccharidoses IVA (MPS IVA) have a progressive accumulation of the specific glycosaminoglycans (GAGs): chondroitin-6-sulfate (C6S) and keratan sulfate (KS), leading to the degeneration of the cartilage matrix and its connective tissue perturbing the regular microarchitecture of cartilage and successively distorting bone ossification and growth. Impaired cartilage quality and poor bone mineralization lead to serious hip disorders in MPS IVA patients. Although hip dysplasia
more » ... ough hip dysplasia is seen widely in musculoskeletal abnormality of this disorder, the pathophysiology of the hip bone and cartilage morphology in these patients remains unclear. Until now, no systemic study of the hip joints in MPS IVA has been reported by using the combined images of plain film radiographs (PFR) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). This study aimed to assess the bony and cartilaginous features of hip joints and to explore the potentially related factors of femoral head osteonecrosis (FHN) and hip subluxation/dislocation in patients with MPS IVA. Hip joints in MPS IVA patients were retrospectively reviewed, based on the findings of PFR and MRI data from 2014 to 2019. Demographic information was also collected and analyzed with imaging measurements. A total of 19 patients (eight boys and 11 girls) were recruited, and 38 hip joints in these patients were examined. Eleven patients (57.9%) had FHN. FHN patients were statistically compared with those without FHN. Correlations between cartilaginous femoral head coverage (CFHC) and acetabular index (AI), cartilaginous AI (CAI), or neck-shaft angle (NSA) were investigated in patients with hip subluxation or dislocation. The greater cartilaginous coverage of the hips than their osseous inherency was observed. Significant correlation was observed between CFHC and AI (r =−0.351, p = 0.049) or CAI (r =−0.381, p = 0.032). Severe subluxations or dislocations were more likely to be present in those with more dysplastic bony and cartilaginous hips. In conclusion, our study provides the first systemic description of bony and cartilaginous characteristics in the hip morphology of MPS IVA patients. We have demonstrated that plain radiography alone leads to a misunderstanding of hip morphology and that MRI measurements with PFR are an essential tool to evaluate the 'true' characterization of hips for MPS IVA patients.
doi:10.3390/diagnostics10050264 pmid:32365519 fatcat:dyofe3p53jhcheter3ljsemrfe