Adherence to food-based dietary guidelines among adolescents in Germany according to socio-economic status and region: results from Eating Study as a KiGGS Module (EsKiMo) II
Objective: Dietary habits developed during childhood and adolescence are likely to continue into adulthood. An unbalanced diet may cause nutrient deficiencies and excessive energy intake; these enhance the risk for developing overweight and obesity and their co-morbidities. In the present analysis, food consumption of adolescents is described and evaluated against German food-based dietary guidelines with special focus on socio-economic status (SES) and region of residence. Design: Within the
... esign: Within the 'German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents' (KiGGS Wave 2), the cross-sectional 'Eating Study as a KiGGS Module' (EsKiMo II) was conducted from 2015 until 2017 to provide data about dietary behaviour. Setting: Germany. Participants: 1353 adolescents aged 12–17 years from a nationwide representative sample with food consumption data from computer-assisted dietary history interviews. Results: The median consumption of fruits, vegetables, starchy foods and milk/dairy products among adolescents in Germany was below the recommendation. The median consumption of both meat/meat products and unfavourable foods, like confectionery, which should be consumed sparingly, was about 1·5 times the recommended amount. The total amount of beverages consumed by most adolescents was above the minimum amount recommended. Soft drink consumption of adolescents with a low SES was three to five times higher than soft drink consumption of adolescents with a high SES. Conclusions: The results indicate the need for an improvement of dietary habits among adolescents in Germany. Further approaches to promote healthy diets in Germany should be continued, and the focus on social inequalities should be strengthened.