Disseminated Superficial Actinic Porokeratosis in the Elderly: A Case Report
Serbian Journal of Dermatology and Venereology
AbstractCurrently, most authors believe that disseminated superficial actinic porokeratosis (DSAP) is an inherited or acquired dermatologic disorder of keratinization that occurs in genetically predisposed individuals after adequate exposure to ultraviolet (UV) rays, or immunosuppression. Lesions in DSAP start in sun-exposed areas most commonly in the third or fourth decade of life. The lesions are pink to brownish papules and plaques with a raised scaling ridge, histologically seen as a column
... ly seen as a column of parakeratotic keratinocytes, the cornoid lamella. DSAP is not only the most common, but also the most often overlooked form of porokeratosis (P). Here we present a 77-year-old male with DSAP, who sporadically developed initial skin lesions at the age of 67, at the time when his personal and medical history were significantly long for chronic intensive sun exposure and type 1 insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. We established the diagnosis of DSAP based on personal and medical history, clinical presentation, auxiliary methods such as dermoscopy, and confirmed with pathohistological findings. We advised the patient to avoid sun exposure and to apply photo-protective sunscreens, emollients and keratolytics. After five years of monitoring his changes, we continue to control his lesions for any possible alteration. Although mutations in several genes and data on sun exposure may be responsible for the onset of the disease, most cases of DSPA occur sporadically and without involving the facial skin, as in our case. Lesions usually begin in the third or fourth decade of life. In the elderly, an additional trigger may be present, such as e.g. age-related decreased immune competence. Diabetes mellitus may also be associated with immunodeficiency in the elderly. Recently, DSPA has been a special subtype of DSPA in the elderly. Malignant alteration can occur in DSPA, most commonly in lesions that are long lasting, large, in the elderly, or in lesions in immunocompromised individuals. In conclusion, this is the case of a 77-year-old male person, who sporadically developed the so-called subtype DSPA in the elderly. In addition to UV radiation, the relevant suggestive trigger factors were the immunosuppressive effects of diabetes mellitus and chronological aging.