EFFECT OF INTERCROPPING PATTERNS AND NITROGEN FERTILIZER LEVELS ON PRODUCTIVITY OF INTERCROPPED SUGAR BEET AND SUNFLOWER
Zagazig Journal of Agricultural Research
Two field experiments were conducted during two winter successive seasons 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 at Gemmeza Research Station, El Gharbia Governorate, Egypt to study the effect of two patterns of mono cropping and intercropping i.e.: P1-Sunflower was planted in one row at the top of the terrace, 20 cm apart between hills one plant hill -1 (17500 plants fad. -1 ) to achieve (100% sugar beet + 50% sunflower). P2-Sunflower was planted in one row at top of the terrace, 30 cm apart between hills one
... plant hill -1 (11666 plants fad. -1 ) to achieve (100%sugar beet + 33.33% sunflower). P3-Sunflower was planted in one row at top of the terrace, 40 cm apart between hills one plant hill -1 ( 8315 plants fad. -1 ) to achieve (100%sugar beet + 25% sunflower). In all intercropping patterns, sugar beet was planted at 20 cm a part on two sides of the terrace (35000 plants fad. -1 ). The sole treatments of sugar beet and sunflower were grown at the recommended densities (35000 plants fad. -1 ) 20 cm, one plant hill -1 in one side in ridge 60 cm wide, and three nitrogen fertilizer levels (80, 100 and 120 kg N fad. -1 ) on yield and land use efficiency of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) -sunflower (Helianthus annuus (L.) Merr.) intercropped. The results showed that: root length and diameter, top and root weights plant -1 and top, root and sugar yields fad. -1 , as well as purity, total soluble solids (%) (TSS%) and sucrose (%) of sugar beet were significantly increased by reducing sunflower plant density in intercropped with sugar beet from 50 to 33.3 and up to 25% of its pure stand in both seasons and their combined analysis. The reduction in root yield fad. -1 , of sugar beet were 8.64 and 4.58% for intercropping patterns which including 50.0 and 33.3% sunflower plant density of its pure stand in combined analysis, respectively, compared with 25.0%. Increasing N fertilizer levels from 80 up to 120 Kg N fad. -1 , significantly increased all aforementioned traits of sugar beet, expect quality traits behaved with opposite trend in both seasons and combined analysis. There was significant effect of relay intercropping patterns in most sunflower traits. Plant height and seed yield fad. -1 , of sunflower were significantly increased by increasing sunflower plant density with sugar beet from 25, 33.3 and up to 50%, whereas yield components showed opposite trend in both seasons as well combined analysis. All aforementioned traits of sunflower were significantly increased by increasing N fertilizer level from 80, 100 and up to 120Kg N fad. -1 , in both seasons and combined analysis. The highest value of Land Equivalent Ratio (LER) 1.50, Land Equivalent Coefficient (LEC) (0.53), Area Time Equivalent Ratio (ATER) (1.15) were obtained with intercropping planting pattern (100% sugar beet + 50% sunflower) at 120 Kg N fad. -1 , and the best yield advantage Relative Crowding Coefficient (RCC) was obtained with (100% sugar beet + 25% sunflower) at the same level of N fertilizer. The highest values of Monetary Advantage Index (MAI) (4750 LE) and gross profit (14252 LE) were showed with (100% sugar beet + 50% sunflower) under 120 Kg N fad -1 .