Energetics of mesoscale cell turbulence in two-dimensional monolayers
AbstractInvestigation of energy mechanisms at the collective cell scale is a challenge for understanding various biological processes, such as embryonic development and tumor metastasis. Here we investigate the energetics of self-sustained mesoscale turbulence in confluent two-dimensional (2D) cell monolayers. We find that the kinetic energy and enstrophy of collective cell flows in both epithelial and non-epithelial cell monolayers collapse to a family of probability density functions, which
... functions, which follow the q-Gaussian distribution rather than the Maxwell–Boltzmann distribution. The enstrophy scales linearly with the kinetic energy as the monolayer matures. The energy spectra exhibit a power-decaying law at large wavenumbers, with a scaling exponent markedly different from that in the classical 2D Kolmogorov–Kraichnan turbulence. These energetic features are demonstrated to be common for all cell types on various substrates with a wide range of stiffness. This study provides unique clues to understand active natures of cell population and tissues.