Sodium and Potassium Intake and Cardiovascular Disease in Older People: A Systematic Review

Carla Gonçalves, Sandra Abreu
2020 Nutrients  
This review aims to examine the relationship of sodium and potassium intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) among older people. Methods: We performed a literature search using PubMed and Web of Science (January 2015 to July 2020) without language restriction. Observational and experimental studies that reported the relationship between sodium, potassium, or sodium-to-potassium ratio with CVD among older adults aged higher than 60 years were included. The authors independently screened all
more » ... ified studies, extracted information, and assessed the quality of included studies. Risk of bias was assessed using the Risk of Bias Assessment Tool for Nonrandomized Studies (RoBANS) for observational studies and the revised Cochrane risk-of-bias tool (RoB 2 tool) for randomized trials. Results: We included 12 studies (6 prospective cohort studies, 5 cross-sectional studies, and 1 experimental study). Five of the studies reported on sodium-to-potassium ratio (n = 5), and the others on potassium and/or sodium intake. Cardiovascular events (e.g., stroke and heart failure) were the most reported outcome (n = 9). Of the 12 studies included, five observational studies had low bias risk and the randomized controlled trial was judged as uncertain risk of bias. We found inconsistent results for the effect of the reduction of sodium intake in this population for lower risk of CVD. We found that both the increase of potassium intake and the decrease of sodium-to-potassium ratio were associated with lower risk of hypertension and CVD, particularly stroke. Conclusion: The present review suggests that both higher potassium and lower sodium-to-potassium ratio are associated with lower risk of CVD.
doi:10.3390/nu12113447 pmid:33182820 fatcat:52eigbexjzh5vjcglnqkzig6ae