Learning Probabilistic Termination Proofs [chapter]

Alessandro Abate, Mirco Giacobbe, Diptarko Roy
2021 Lecture Notes in Computer Science  
AbstractWe present the first machine learning approach to the termination analysis of probabilistic programs. Ranking supermartingales (RSMs) prove that probabilistic programs halt, in expectation, within a finite number of steps. While previously RSMs were directly synthesised from source code, our method learns them from sampled execution traces. We introduce the neural ranking supermartingale: we let a neural network fit an RSM over execution traces and then we verify it over the source code
more » ... using satisfiability modulo theories (SMT); if the latter step produces a counterexample, we generate from it new sample traces and repeat learning in a counterexample-guided inductive synthesis loop, until the SMT solver confirms the validity of the RSM. The result is thus a sound witness of probabilistic termination. Our learning strategy is agnostic to the source code and its verification counterpart supports the widest range of probabilistic single-loop programs that any existing tool can handle to date. We demonstrate the efficacy of our method over a range of benchmarks that include linear and polynomial programs with discrete, continuous, state-dependent, multi-variate, hierarchical distributions, and distributions with undefined moments.
doi:10.1007/978-3-030-81688-9_1 fatcat:srgow3ul6ncypi5hkzdiwstovq