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Tamponade treatment for epistaxis is painful and traumatic to the nasal mucosa, and may necessitate hospitalization for several days. Hot-water irrigation (HWI) was introduced as a treatment of epistaxis more than 100 years ago. In a previous study the treatment proved to be effective, less painful, and less traumatic, and required a shorter hospital stay than tamponade treatment. However, HWI has the risk of aspiration during treatment. To minimize this risk, a special catheter has beendoi:10.1001/archotol.125.6.686 pmid:10367928 fatcat:mcj2u75z4ngidi2z2ul2qgpfxy