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Physical Review B
Based on the analysis of the measurement data of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and optics, we show that the charge transfer gap is significantly smaller than the optical one and is reduced by doping in electron doped cuprate superconductors. This leads to a strong charge fluctuation between the Zhang-Rice singlet and the upper Hubbard bands. The basic model for describing this system is a hybridized two-band $t$-$J$ model. In the symmetric limit where the correspondingdoi:10.1103/physrevb.79.014524 fatcat:vvnbqqfedjf2lfm4tzodeafgiy