Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Predominantly Inattentive Subtype/Presentation: Research Progress and Translational Studies

Ike C. de la Peña, Michael C. Pan, Chau Giang Thai, Tamara Alisso
2020 Brain Sciences  
Research on the predominantly inattentive attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD-PI) subtype/presentation is important given its high prevalence, but paradoxically it is under-recognized and undertreated. The temporal stability of the inattention symptom could impact the high worldwide prevalence of ADHD-PI. Some evidence suggests differences in the nature of attentional deficit in ADHD-PI vs. that in other subtypes. Impairments in neuropsychological, neurocognitive, and social
more » ... ng are also evident in ADHD-PI, which could be specific to the subtype (e.g., processing speed, social perception, and skills), or differ from others in severity. Neuroimaging studies have also revealed ADHD-PI-specific neuropathological abnormalities and those that are shared with other subtypes. ADHD-PI is highly comorbid with learning and internalizing (e.g., anxiety and depression) disorders. There is no solid evidence for ADHD-PI-specific genetic etiologies and differential responses of subtypes to ADHD medications. Translational studies have used the Wistar Kyoto/NCrl substrain which requires further characterizations as an ADHD-PI model. Overall, ADHD-PI research has been conducted in the context of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, which arguably does not conform to the widely recognized "dimensional" view of ADHD. The Research Domain Criteria has been proposed to provide a novel framework for understanding the nature of neuropsychiatric illnesses and ultimately improve their diagnosis and treatment.
doi:10.3390/brainsci10050292 pmid:32422912 fatcat:d32nsgxguffzblgei3zz22fso4