Cardioprotective effects of alendronate bisphosphonate in patients with ischemic heart disease associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus and osteoporosis
Introduction. Diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis are linked by common pathophysiological mechanisms.Objective. To evaluate the effect of alendronate bisphosphonate on cardiovascular outcomes in comorbid patients with ischemic heart disease (CHD) associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 diabetes) and osteoporosis during a two-year follow-up.Materials and methods. A total of 112 women with comorbid pathology including osteoporosis, coronary artery disease, and
... 2 diabetes were examined. The patients' condition was assessed at baseline and prospectively for 24 months with a combined endpoint assessment, including: mortality, readmission for cardiovascular diseases, the development of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, atrial fibrillation. Women were divided into groups: group 1 (n = 59) included patients who received basic therapy for IHD and type 2 diabetes, group 2 (n = 53) included patients who, in addition to basic therapy for coronary artery disease and diabetes Type 2 was prescribed alendronic acid preparation.Results and discussion. According to the results of two-year follow-up, the patients were divided into two subgroups: patients with a favorable (n = 61) and unfavorable course of coronary artery disease (n = 51). At the same time, during prospective observation, the following was assessed: the frequency of hospitalizations for cardiovascular diseases, the dynamics of the functional class (FC) of exertional angina, the development of MI, stroke, atrial fibrillation, and mortality. A significant association of alendronate therapy with a favorable course of ischemic heart disease (OR = 0.26; 95% CI = 0.18-0.57; p = 0.008), a decrease in the risk of MI (OR = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.11-0.87; p = 0.018) and worsening of FC of exertional angina (OR = 0.4; 95% CI = 0.17-0.91; p = 0.014).Conclusion. Long-term (24 months) use of alendronate is an effective and safe method for the treatment of associated cardiovascular pathology, represented by coronary artery disease, type 2 diabetes and osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, reducing the risk of MI, worsening of FC of exertional angina. These results suggest a more aggressive prescription of alendronate for osteoporotic patients at very high cardiovascular risk.