Deep Learning Model for Screening Sepsis Using Electrocardiography
Background: Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction and is a major healthcare burden worldwide. Although sepsis is a medical emergency that requires immediate management, it is difficult to screen the occurrence of sepsis. In this study, we propose an artificial intelligence based on deep learning-based model (DLM) for screening sepsis using electrocardiography (ECG).Methods: This retrospective cohort study included 46,017 patients who admitted to two hospitals. 1,548 and 639 patients
... and 639 patients underwent sepsis and septic shock. The DLM was developed using 73,727 ECGs of 18,142 patients and internal validation was conducted using 7,774 ECGs of 7,774 patients. Furthermore, we conducted an external validation with 20,101 ECGs of 20,101 patients from another hospital to verify the applicability of the DLM across centers.Results: During the internal and external validation, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of an DLM using 12-lead ECG for screening sepsis were 0.901 (95% confidence interval 0.882–0.920) and 0.863 (0.846–0.879), respectively. During internal and external validation, AUC of an DLM for detecting septic shock were 0.906 (95% CI = 0.877–0.936) and 0.899 (95% CI = 0.872–0.925), respectively. The AUC of the DLM for detecting sepsis using 6-lead and single-lead ECGs were 0.845–0.882. A sensitivity map showed that the QRS complex and T wave was associated with sepsis. Subgroup analysis was conducted using ECGs from 4,609 patients who admitted with infectious disease, The AUC of the DLM for predicting in-hospital mortality was 0.817 (0.793–0.840). There was a significant difference in the prediction score of DLM using ECG according to the presence of infection in the validation dataset (0.277 vs 0.574, p<0.001), including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (0.260 vs 0.725, p=0.018).Conclusions: The DLM demonstrated reasonable performance for screening sepsis using 12-, 6-, and single-lead ECG. The results suggest that sepsis can be screened using not only conventional ECG devices, but also diverse life-type ECG machine employing the DLM, thereby preventing irreversible disease progression and mortality.