Effects of delayed intraventricular TLR7 agonist administration on long-term neurological outcome following asphyxia in the preterm fetal sheep
In the preterm brain, accumulating evidence suggests toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key mediators of the downstream inflammatory pathways triggered by hypoxia-ischemia (HI), which have the potential to exacerbate or ameliorate injury. Recently we demonstrated that central acute administration of the TLR7 agonist Gardiquimod (GDQ) confers neuroprotection in the preterm fetal sheep at 3 days post-asphyxial recovery. However, it is unknown whether GDQ can afford long-term protection. To address
... s, we examined the long-term effects of GDQ. Briefly, fetal sheep (0.7 gestation) received sham asphyxia or asphyxia induced by umbilical cord occlusion, and were studied for 7 days recovery. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of GDQ (total dose 3.34 mg) or vehicle was performed from 1-4 hours after asphyxia. GDQ was associated with a robust increase in concentration of tumor necrosis factor-(TNF)-α in the fetal plasma, and interleukin-(IL)-10 in both the fetal plasma and cerebrospinal fluid. GDQ did not significantly change the number of total and immature/mature oligodendrocytes within the periventricular and intragyral white matter. No changes were observed in astroglial and microglial numbers and proliferating cells in both white matter regions. GDQ increased neuronal survival in the CA4 region of the hippocampus, but was associated with exacerbated neuronal injury within the caudate nucleus. In conclusion, our data suggest delayed acute ICV administration of GDQ after severe HI in the developing brain may not support long-term neuroprotection.