Investigation of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency prevalence in a Plasmodium vivax-endemic area in the Republic of Korea (ROK) [post]

Wonsig Lee, Sang-Eun Lee, Min Jun Lee, Kyung Tae Noh
2020 unpublished
Background Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most prevalent inborn disorder. This X-chromosome-linked recessive disease affects more than 400 million people globally, and is associated with haemolytic anaemia after medication with the anti-latent malaria drug, primaquine. To prevent malaria, the Republic of Korea (ROK) Army administers malaria chemoprophylaxis. Due to the previously low G6PD deficiency prevalence in the ROK, prior to primaquine administration, testing
more » ... r G6PD deficiency was not mandatory. In this study, to evaluate the risk from malaria chemoprophylaxis in the ROK, G6PD deficiency prevalence was investigated. Methods Blood specimens from 1,632 soldiers entering training camp for the 3 rd Infantry of the ROK Army were collected. CareStart™ Biosensor for G6PD and haemoglobin (Hb) was used to detect G6PD levels. G6PD variants using the DiaPlexC G6PD Genotyping kit (Asian type) and full-length sequencing were examined. Results Of 1,632 blood specimens tested, none was observed to be G6PD deficient. The median value of all tested samples was 7.582 U/g Hb. An investigation of 170 G6PD DNA variants was analysed and categorized as partially low normal [n = 131, 30–80% (2.27–6.05 U/g Hb)of the median value], high [n=3, >150% (>11.373 U/g Hb) of the median value], or normal [n = 36, 80–150% (6.05–11.373 U/g Hb) of the median value], and none was amplified by the DiaPlexC kit. Five silent mutations (C→T) in 38 partially abnormal specimens were found at the 1,311th nucleotide position by sequence analysis. Another 8 silent mutations (T93C) were also detected in 131 partially low normal specimens. Thus, it is inferred that these silent mutations could be related to G6PD activity. Conclusions This G6PD deficiency prevalence study, conducted among participants from the 3 rd Infantry of the ROK Army, provided crucial evidence for the safety of malaria chemoprophylaxis. This study showed found that the prevalence of G6PD deficiency among 1,632 young soldiers was wholly absent. Although G6PD phenotypic mutations were not detected, many silent mutations (C1311T and T93C) were observed. Thus, it is inferred that malaria chemoprophylaxis is relatively safe against G6PD deficiency-mediated haemolytic anaemia. However, given the number of individuals whose G6PD were at the low end of the normal range and the frequent detection of G6PD deficiency-related mutations, consistent monitoring of G6PD deficiency is needed. Keywords : Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, Prevalence, Single nucleotide polymorphism, Primaquine
doi:10.21203/ fatcat:7vc5pmjsqbagdhyvo4466nr2oi