A multicity study of air pollution and cardiorespiratory emergency department visits: Comparing approaches for combining estimates across cities

Jenna R. Krall, Howard H. Chang, Lance A. Waller, James A. Mulholland, Andrea Winquist, Evelyn O. Talbott, Judith R. Rager, Paige E. Tolbert, Stefanie Ebelt Sarnat
2018 Environment International  
Determining how associations between ambient air pollution and health vary by specific outcome is important for developing public health interventions. We estimated associations between twelve ambient air pollutants of both primary (e.g. nitrogen oxides) and secondary (e.g. ozone and sulfate) origin and cardiorespiratory emergency department (ED) visits for 8 specific outcomes in including Atlanta, GA; Birmingham, AL; Dallas, TX; Pittsburgh, PA; St. Louis, MO. For each city, we fitted
more » ... sed Poisson time-series models to estimate associations between each pollutant and specific outcome. To estimate multicity and posterior city-specific associations, we developed a Bayesian multicity multi-outcome (MCM) model that pools information across cities using data from all specific outcomes. We fitted single pollutant models as well as models with multipollutant components using a two-stage chemical mixtures approach. Posterior city-specific associations from the MCM models were somewhat attenuated, with smaller standard errors, compared to associations from time-series regression models. We found positive associations of both primary and secondary pollutants with respiratory disease ED visits. There was some indication that primary pollutants, particularly nitrogen oxides, were also associated with cardiovascular disease ED visits. Bayesian models can help to synthesize findings across multiple outcomes and cities by providing posterior city-specific associations building on variation and similarities across the multiple sources of available information.
doi:10.1016/j.envint.2018.07.033 pmid:30107292 pmcid:PMC6218942 fatcat:luff6fyodbbb3hlm7rg2kpy6ii