Living with the enemy: from protein-misfolding pathologies we know, to those we want to know

Abdul-Hamid Emwas, Mawadda Alghrably, Manel Dhahri, Abeer Sharfalddin, Rawiah Alsiary, Mariusz Jaremko, Gavino Faa, Marcello Campagna, Terenzio Congiu, Monica Piras, Marco Piludu, Giuseppina Pichiri (+2 others)
2021 Ageing Research Reviews  
Conformational diseases are caused by the aggregation of misfolded proteins. The risk for such pathologies develops years before clinical symptoms appear, and is higher in people with alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) polymorphisms. Thousands of people with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) are underdiagnosed. Enemy-aggregating proteins may reside in these underdiagnosed AATD patients for many years before a pathology for AATD fully develops. In this perspective review, we hypothesize that the AAT
more » ... rotein could exert a new and previously unconsidered biological effect as an endogenous metal ion chelator that plays a significant role in essential metal ion homeostasis. In this respect, AAT polymorphism may cause an imbalance of metal ions, which could be correlated with the aggregation of amylin, tau, amyloid beta, and alpha synuclein proteins in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, respectively.
doi:10.1016/j.arr.2021.101391 pmid:34119687 fatcat:6xixmqowengq3jawxduon2fzrq